Sunday, May 24, 2020

Martin Luther King Jr.s States Segregation Not Only Hurts...

Martin Luther King Jr. On April 16, 1963 Martin Luther King Jr. wrote his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, in which he responded to the Southern Clergy men’s letter appealing to the end of the demonstrations to end the demonstrations against segregation. King responded with his own letter pleading with the clergy to end segregation. In his letter he used examples of pathos, ethos, and logos to express himself to the clergymen. He also used his knowledge as a minister and a leader in his community to advance his argument. Throughout the letter Martin Luther King Jr. expresses his argument through the appeal to logic and authority. â€Å"To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a law that is not rooted in eternal law†¦show more content†¦He appeals to his fellow African-Americans to continue the fight for the end of segregation. He tells them to continue fighting to put a stop to the horrible brutalities that have happened to their families. I t is because of segregation that families have been attacked and have lost loved ones do to hate. With his appeal to emotion he is able to convey a message to his followers to keep fighting and appeal to the emotions of the clergymen to end segregation. Martin Luther King Jr. used his knowledge as a minister and his leadership in the community to advance his argument to end segregation. â€Å"Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their ‘thus saith the Lord’ far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my home town.† (King Letter from Birmingham). King knew that the clergymen could not go against his arguments because they would then look like hypocrites going against the world of the bible as Catholics. According to King, Jesu s Christ preached his beliefs and thoughts of freedom in ancient times. King argues that he to is arguing and fighting for the freedom of his people just as Jesus did. In 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. wrote a letter in response to the Southern Clergymen’s letter to stop all protests to endShow MoreRelatedRhetorical Analysis Of Martin Luther King Jr.1046 Words   |  5 Pagesactivist, Martin Luther King Jr. gave his memorable â€Å"I Have a Dream† speech while standing at the feet of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. His uplifting speech is one of the most admired during the civil rights era and arguably one of the best in American history. On August 28th, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. spoke about the true American dream: equality. Although the video of his oral spectacle is powerful, the written document portrays exactly how brilliant Martin Luther King Jr. reallyRead MoreThe Beliefs of Martin Luther King Jr. versus Malcolm X Essay1208 Words   |  5 PagesBe liefs of Martin Luther King Jr. versus Malcolm X â€Å"I have a dream, that one day little black boys and black girls will join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sister and brother.† (de Kay 75)†¦Martin Luther King Jr. During the past century, the United States of America has wresled with the problem of inequality between black and white people. Two influential people who helped to combat racism and the inequality of man were Martin Luther King Jr. and MalcolmRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. vs. Malcolm X997 Words   |  4 PagesMartin Luther King Jr. vs. Malcolm X Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X both fought for the same goal, but had different ways of achieving this goal. They both fought against civil rights and were leaders in the civil rights movement. The way they were brought up is a good explanation for their differences; King was brought up in a wealthy family, while X was raised in the ghetto to a poor family. Both fought against unfair laws, Social Discrimination, and Racial segregation, but theyRead MoreThe Voice Of The Voiceless Essay1164 Words   |  5 Pagesendowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.† This was the philosophy that the United States was founded on as stated in the Declaration of Independence. However, did this hold true for all society? Or was it lost in translation and applied to â€Å"whites only? Because how can a â€Å"negro† believe in freedom of life when he or she has to watch their loved ones being hun g? How can the â€Å"negro† believe in in the idea of libertyRead MoreAnalyzing Identity in Racist Language Essay884 Words   |  4 Pagesinclude: Martin L. King Jr.s Letter from Birmingham Jail; Urban Neanderthals; Black Ball; Gran Torino and a Very Old Man with Enormous Wings. I believe that the connection between all these texts brought about a social change in the community by the language of the authors. The leader of the American Civil Rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s was Martin L. King Jr. Martin L. King Jr. was an activist for civil rights who dealt with opposition of his brothers and unjust segregation of NegrosRead MoreWhat I Have Learned in American Government Roots and Reform1474 Words   |  6 PagesTopeka, Kans., unanimously agreeing that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional. The ruling paves the way for large-scale desegregation. The decision overturns the 1896 Plessey v. Ferguson ruling that sanctioned separate but equal segregation of the races, ruling that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. It is a victory for NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall, who will later return to the Supreme Court as the nation s first black justice. August 1955 Fourteen-year-oldRead MoreIs Martin Luther King s Wish Come True?1328 Words   |  6 PagesDreaming of Equality - Has Martin Luther King’s Wish Come True? With the late 1900’s civil rights movement came many famous protesters and speakers, such as Rosa Parks and Malcolm X. Perhaps the most famous civil rights worker was Martin Luther King Jr., who delivered his famous â€Å"I have a dream† speech in 1963. In his speech, Martin Luther King Jr. mentions a personal dream of his in which â€Å"little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters andRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr.2405 Words   |  10 PagesMartin Luther King Jr. was a Baptist minister and social activist, who led the Civil Rights Movement in the United States from the mid-1950s until his death by assassination in 1968. IN THESE GROUPS NOBEL PEACE PRIZE WINNERS FAMOUS PEOPLE WHO DIED IN 1968 FAMOUS PEOPLE WHO WENT TO PRISON FAMOUS CAPRICORNS Show All Groups 1 of 19  «  » QUOTES â€Å"But we come here tonight to be saved from that patience that makes us patient with anything less than freedom and justice.† —Martin Luther King Jr. Read MoreMartin Luther Kings Letter From Birmingham Jail839 Words   |  4 PagesDuring the Civil Rights Movement in the mid 1960’s one of the most well- known civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested and was placed into a jail in Birmingham Alabama for eleven days (Westbrook 1). Martin Luther King did not commit a crime that was in violation of any law in the U.S Constitution. King was arrested for taking a direct action for the Black community that was harassed and judged every day for there color of their skin. In King’s Letter From Birmingham Jail on theRead MoreMartin Luther King Jr. Essay1831 Words   |  8 Pagesclergy viewed Martin Luther King, Jr. as an outsider that has come to Birmingham instigate and lead destructive demonstrations that were taking place in the Birmingham community at that time. Whereas Martin Luther King, Jr. should be a peer or someone of equal status because of their positions in the church within the community, the cle rgy men have opposing views of ways to resolve issues of segregation from Martin Luther King, Jr. that steer their point of view of Martin Luther King, Jr. from a religious

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Ifrs Synthesis Essay - 1281 Words

For nearly half a century, a movement has been underway to establish a high-quality, comprehensive set of international accounting standards, with the goal of facilitating international trade and investment. In the global capital market, differences in the rules of accounting for the purposes of recognition, measurement, and reporting of financial results have impaired the smooth transfer of information across borders. Given that it accounts for nearly a third of the global market, there is considerable pressure for the United States to conform to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), as promulgated by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). While moving to a single set of accounting standards could create†¦show more content†¦Standardized reporting across firms from different countries would facilitate cross-border investment and the integration of capital markets (Hail, Luzi, et al). According to Beke (2011), Standardization implies the †Å"elimination of alternatives in accounting for representing economic transactions and other events† (Angeloni). In essence, similar events and transactions would be reported in a similar manner, and vice versa. Having more comparable reports allows firms to make better-informed investment choices due to a better understanding of competing firms, which can lead to cost savings. Moreover, firms that have more comparable reports can better contract with suppliers and firms in other countries, and these contracts are more likely to be fully specified and enforceable. Studies also show that the adoption of IFRS reporting should be associated with an increase in market liquidity, as well as a decline in firms’ cost of capital (Hail, Luzi, et al.). Before delving into the arguments against IFRS adoption, it is important to note that the U.S. economy and institutional framework have many idiosyncrasies. Hence, even if switching to IFRS proved beneficial for some countries, it would not necessarily be the same for the United States. To start, the United States possesses the largest economy in the world, and its public equity market accounts for a third of global market

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Hr Term Paper Free Essays

Table of Contents: Introduction to SME Recruitment and the process involved Challenges faced by SME’s Overseas challenges Suggestions to overcome challenges What are SMEs? Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are businesses that employ up to 250 people. No one is precisely sure how many of them there are because there are lots of companies that have limited liability status but are not trading and there are lots of businesses that are sole proprietorships that have escaped the official net of the tax man, the VAT man and the registrar of companies. We will see figures that range as high as 4. We will write a custom essay sample on Hr Term Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3 million and as low as 3. 7 million, the best estimate being around 4. 0 million. Although the most usual definition of an SME is a company employing up to 250 employees, nearly all (over 99%) employ less than 50 people. In fact, three quarters of them don’t have any employees – they are sole operators. So, the emphasis really is on small rather than medium in the SME label. The engine of economic recovery The significance of these small businesses is often overlooked. They are the ants in the ant hill rather than the more glamorous animals of the forest. And yet they make up a half of all the jobs in the UK and account for half of our GDP. Because they are small and tightly managed, decisions can be taken quickly and they are flexible in responding to changes in the temperature of the market. In the UK as in the rest of the world, SMEs are recognised as the most responsive engine of economic growth. Who are they? There are over 1,500 different classifications of SMEs. These are referred to as Standard Industrial Classifications by the Government and they are used to describe the nature of a company’s business. As might be expected, SMEs do not compete where large capital investment is required for process industries. Therefore, they do not exist in car assembly, steel making, cement manufacture and the like. They are found in profusion in the service industries from vehicle servicing, hairdressing, retailing to the professions. There are manufacturers, of course, and they operate across most industries from complex electronics to traditional businesses such as metal bashing and wood turning. The SME shopping basket Every SME purchases goods and services in the pursuance of its business. They all have some basic needs such as telephones, stationery and they consume energy. Nearly all have office furniture and operate vehicles. They rent property and they buy legal and financial services. Depending on their industrial classification, they also will buy materials of one form or another. In total this adds up to over ? 1 billion of products and services per annum. Safety in numbers The most surprising thing about this huge shopping basket is that it is often ignored by marketers who have their sites on the larger corporations that appear to make easier picking. Whilst it is true that large buyers are easier to line up in the sight of a marketing rifle, they are not necessarily the most profitable. Slimma enjoyed being a main supplier to Marks Spencer until MS changed its buying policy and it lost the business. It not only lost the business; it went out of business. In contrast, RS Components has always seen the potential in SMEs and through its next day postal delivery service, it supplies a myriad of bits and pieces to businesses at premium prices and good margins. A simple decision making unit There are no complicated purchasing teams in SMEs. Very often it is just the boss who is tea person, book keeper, principal sales person and buyer. With all these duties, it is not feasible to agonise too deeply about the choice of a supplier. Decisions are made quickly and based on simple criteria such as the supplier is easy to buy from, it is good value, it is supported by the right kind of service etc. Once a purchase has been made, a relationship is established and very often a buying pattern is set up that will last for a long time. The B2B SME panel B2B wants to get to the hearts and minds (and purchasing patterns) of SME owners and has recently launched an online panel comprised of key decision makers within the SME sector. B2B has undertaken a rigorous panel recruitment programme to ensure a diverse and high calibre sample of thousands of SME decision makers throughout the UK, people who are notoriously hard to get hold of yet who buy hundreds of different services. In India In India, the Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) sector plays a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of the country. It is estimated that in terms of value, the sector accounts for about 39% of the manufacturing output and around 33% of the total export of the country. Further, in recent years the MSE sector has consistently registered higher growth rate compared to the overall industrial sector. The major advantage of the sector is its employment potential at low capital cost. As per available statistics, this sector employs an estimated 31 million persons spread over 12. million enterprises and the labour intensity in the MSE sector is estimated to be almost 4 times higher than the large enterprises. In South Africa the term SMME, for Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises, is used. Elsewhere in Africa, MSME is used, for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises. Size thresholds vary from country to country. The lack of a universal size definition makes business studies and market research more difficult. RECRUITMENT Recruitment is the process where the HR identifying the gaps to be filled, attracting the suitable person’s cv’s through different media ( like adds. n paper, approaching consultants, employee references, campus placements( when the requirement is huge), even u can verify active working employees in ur company through promotions/transfers) etc. , upto receiving the cv’s. selection starts from scrutining the received cv’s, conducting the tests finally ends with the HR round of interview for taking a desicion whether selected or not. Recruitment Process The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organisations. Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the candidates to arranging and conducting the interviews and requires many resources and time. A general recruitment process is as follows: Identifying the vacancy: The recruitment process begins with the human resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the company. These contain: Posts to be filled Number of persons Duties to be performed Qualifications required Preparing the job description and person specification. Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees (Advertising etc). Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates. Conducting the interview and decision making Identify vacancy Prepare job description and person specification Advertising the vacancy Managing the response Short-listing Arrange interviews Conducting interview and decision making The recruitment process is immediately followed by the selection process i. e. the final interviews and the decision making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities. CHALLENGES FACED BY SME’S FOR RECRUITING NEW ENTRANTS Challenge One – Find, recruit retain high quality sales people   Organisations of all sizes and in all market sectors have a major challenge in finding and developing quality sales people. The impact of employing average or poor sales personnel can seriously hurt SMEs, as these companies rely on a smaller number of sales staff. They simply do not have the resources, systems and processes that exist within large corporations to effectively manage, develop or re-deploy underperforming sales people. Having high quality, reliable and consistent sales people can make our sales function and a lack of them will break it. Organisations are able to invest in Health Checks, which reviews how the sales function is performing in terms of people, processes and customers. This health check also highlights the areas within the sales function which need to be developed, which is a good starting point for SMEs looking to build or enhance their sales function. Challenge Two – Develop high quality, profitable, long-term customers The issue of quality sales people is the main cause of challenge two – Developing high quality, profitable, long-term customers. The definition of a high quality customer is one where: * To have a win-win, mutually beneficial relationship * The relationship exists at the highest possible level with the key stakeholders * They take a number of products or services from you * They see you as a key supplier or integral to their success * They believe in your people, brand and product, they will not use a competitor * They will actively promote your people, brand and product (word of mouth advertising referrals) Gaining high quality customers is the focus of any successful business over the longer term. Look at any industry or sector where individual key players have shown steady, sustainable, controlled growth and where they have outperformed their competitors. You will notice a number of similarities around the quality of the sales people, perception of the brand, and standard of the product or service. You will also note that in the majority of these organisations, a number of reports and statements focus on’ The Customer’. What makes these organisations so special is that they have simply developed an effective sales, supply, customer management and retention system. This system runs like a well-oiled, high-performance engine, where all the cogs turn and interlink in a highly engineered way. In business, this is like having a successful, proven ‘How to’ users-guide for all the key aspects of sales and client fulfillment. Whether we like it or not, every business has a system that covers all of these critical sales and client management areas. What is evident is that these systems don’t necessarily interlink effectively. In fact, some of these systems seem to work against each other and slow down progress, creating roadblocks for sales and client management to cross. Interestingly enough, high quality sales people also have a system they use at an individual level to sell effectively. This system guides them like a missile to the target and covers all areas of attitude, skill and execution of their tasks. If an organisation wishes to overcome the two key challenges of high quality sales people and high quality customers, they need to develop an effective system that covers sales and client management. An effective selling system has a huge number of benefits to any business – too many to list, however they can be summarised into the following: * Increase profitability per customer and per sales person * Reduce cost of sale * Reduce lead times * Increase win ratio * Improve internal communication and access to information * Increase control and focus * Improve forecasting and business planning * Improve customer relationships and retention * Reduce churn of quality people We do not need to find, recruit and retain high quality sales people, especially as they are expensive. Even small organisations can develop quality sales people themselves and realise the key benefits this brings by simply introducing a successful selling system. This means that the organisation is reliant on an effective, proven and sustainable system and not on individual sales people to perform. If the system works, then the sales people can use the system to work for them. The system will show the organisation very clearly who is performing well and who needs to be developed, and it can even show exactly where and how. To clarify the key point, however, we are not saying that you can or should employ low quality sales people and tell them what to do, and how to do it. What we are saying is that the quality of focus has changed, from finding high quality sales people who can work individually and do the numbers for you, to developing a high quality, repeatable sales system. This is not a new concept; every successful franchise is built on this very principle. If a business wants to realise these benefits, then it is undeniable that they need to have an effective sales team. It is also undeniable that they need to develop high quality customers. If your organisation needs to realise these benefits and you would like the opportunity to work with a specialist, then contact Enact Services. They have developed the ‘Complete Selling System’. This has been designed specifically to address the challenges faced by your sales team(s). This system has been proven to positively impact on the sales results of SME and corporate organisations. CHALLENGE IN THE TALENT WAR The global phenomenon in talent shortage has led to a ‘talent war’ amongst organisations large and small, across all industry sectors throughout the world. This talent war is all about attracting, retaining, developing and engaging a quality workforce that plays a critical role in impacting the organisations bottom-line and growth. With such a struggle for the best talents, it is no wonder that the SMEs often lose out to the MNCs which typically invest millions of dollars in their recruitment and retention strategies. Given that SMEs may not have such ‘muscle’ to fight the talent war, nonetheless it is becoming clear to business leaders / entrepreneurs that an effective HR strategy is critical for its long-term survival. The following are some of the typical challenges faced by SMEs today: Talent Attraction Not maintaining an active database of potential hires – adverts are placed each time there is a vacancy without harnessing past database effectively Not implementing comprehensive hiring channels such as referral, graduate, recruitment internal transfers etc. Lack of detailed job analysis which leads to ineffective recruitment (i. e. often it is not known what are the key criteria for hiring the personnel and key success factors on the job) Weak or no employer branding – candidates do not have a good knowledge of the overall organization OR do not have a good experience during their recruitment exercise Not able to offer higher than average starting salaries and having ‘standard’ benefits/rewards Talent Retention Lack of a comprehensive orientation programme or induction training Lack of clear career path development for individual staff Lack of communication of corporate goals/vision Lack of job-rotation : often SMEs lose talents as they are not able to provide new learning opportunities within the organization by redesigning jobs etc. Minimum investment in training ; development. We have heard: finding and retaining top talent be it for large corporations, SMEs, associations and consultancies is fast becoming a major challenge. In many cases, the challenge has become a factor in the loss of competitive strengths, and consequent decline of market share. Some underlying reasons are well known: demographics (the â€Å"baby boomers† are beginning to retire and not being replaced by equivalent numbers of new entrants into the workforce); declining unemployment; sustained high demand for candidates with similar profiles in many sectors, such as IT and Telecom; shifts in employee attitudes to loyalty and their work/life balance. But another, less obvious factor is at play: employers’ response (or non response) and in particular the adaptation of their recruitment and retention strategies to a rapidly changing labour force landscape. In fact, pragmatically, this is perhaps the most important issue. Employers can’t change demographics, but they can change the way they recruit. Until recently, most employers were in the enviable position of being able to pick and choose among a plethora of spontaneous candidacies to fill most, if not all their open positions. In those cases where â€Å"Mr. or Mrs. Right† was not at hand, word of mouth, and an advertisement would more often than not elicit a more than adequate number of qualified applicants. The biggest challenge was making the right choice! But today, employers are facing new realities. And, as in any rapidly changing environment, those who are the quickest off the mark in adapting their attitudes and strategies will reap the benefits of stronger, more stable, and more efficient human resources. The more senior and/or technical the positions, the more vital this becomes. New challenges and the need for specialised assistance With many or even most employers fishing for the same profiles in the same pond, yesterday’s recruitment strategies are fast becoming inefficient and un (or even counter) productive. The bottom line is that most employers are rapidly (re) discovering the value and economic sense of retaining, and building long term relationships with Executive Search firms. The simple logic is that the quest for talent needs to be both broader, and deeper than ever before. Chances are the ideal candidates are not scanning the â€Å"want ads† or online recruitment websites nor talking to friends about changing jobs. They could come from a different industry (which has already faced the challenge an employer is up against today), and thus bring fresh thinking and new vision. They may bring talent that will enable an employer to embark in new, lucrative business ventures. And they need to be in a position to contribute to an employer’s strategic plan. Leading Executive Search firms will build a highly personalised strategy for each individual recruitment taking these complex factors into account. Headhunters†¦. and headhunters Most leading headhunters accept the title with a smile†¦. they generally prefer to be known as Executive Search consultants. Perhaps to more clearly identify themselves as employer business builders (via human resources), as opposed to simple recruiters. Recruitment agencies tend to use large databases of names, rely on electronic/web technologies, and place cold-calls to potential candidates whom they might never have met before. While not eschewing these methodologies, executive recruiters use their specialised and often personal networks of contacts to attract individuals to opportunities and search for candidates for the most senior positions. In Brussels, as an example, the typical minimum annual salary for a position that an Executive Search firm is retained to fill is â‚ ¬100,000. Consultants specialise within given industries, and typically have long-lasting relationships with their clients. These relationships are key, because the recruiter knows the nuances of the internal culture within the client’s organisation, and is best prepared to offer candidates that would make a good fit. In addition, executive recruitment firms often offer guarantees for the candidates who are hired. That is, if the individual resigns, for example, within six months of the date of hire, the firm will mount a new search to find another candidate. Taking care of the details Companies that decide to search for a senior candidate using a specialised recruitment firm find that they save time and resources. Following an exploratory meeting to learn more about the position and after participating in a thorough briefing session, the search consultant returns a written description of the employer, the competitive situation, the recruitment context, and the position to the client for approval. The description is a key step, and the client must share as much information as possible in order to enable the recruiter to identify the best possible candidates. Of course discretion is paramount – privacy of the client, as well as privacy of the candidates. Building on his experience as Managing Director and Marketing Manager for L’Or? al, Howard Honick has been a senior consultant with Alexander Hughes, one of the leading recruitment firms in Europe, since 2000. â€Å"We believe every mission, every client, every candidate is unique†, says Honick. Our consultants spend whatever time is necessary to understand every aspect of the mission; we pay particular attention to soft skills, and matching client/candidate culture†. Confidentiality is of course crucial. And we only present candidates to our clients who we know could be an ideal match in terms of experience and personality, and therefore make a long-term fit. † It’s all about who you know Executive recruiters know their client’s industries and have many contacts because they have worked in the sectors themselves. Anne De Greef, a senior consultant at Alexander Hughes previously worked for many years in executive positions in business development, operations, strategic planning and M;A for DHL, UPS and as COO for Fleetlogistics/Wheels. Combined with her additional management experience in the chemical and leasing industries, she is well-placed to identify potential candidates for clients in these businesses, because she knows – and has worked with – many individuals in those sectors. â€Å"This detailed knowledge of and ability to recruit high-level executives is what makes clients rely on our services. Clients realise that top-level recruitment is not an overnight process,† said De Greef. Strategic recruitment impacts the bottom-line Recruits for top-level appointments will eventually have a role in shaping the future of a company. They will be a part of the team making strategic decisions about the organisation’s direction and developing and enacting its business plan. Thus, candidates must have extensive experience and the business sense to succeed in making the right decisions. â€Å"There’s a lot on the line when filling positions for our clients,† said Honick. â€Å"The positions we help fill are vital to the client company’s success, otherwise the company probably wouldn’t invest in our services. Costs for recruitment services usually are linked to the salary level of the position being filled. Firms typically charge a placement fee when the candidate they identified and recruited accepts a job. The fee can be set as a straight percentage of the salary, or negotiated as a retainer. For some companies with ongoing hiring needs, the retainer model is usually the most advant ageous. Widening the gene pool Once recruitment profiles have been defined, there are several steps to finding the right candidates. One of the most important is to take a cross-sector approach. Companies must not depend only on the talent that is already employed within their sectors; to the contrary, employers must extend their search for candidates to include industries that they may never before have mined. â€Å"Our experience shows that more and more companies are taking this cross-sector approach. This is particularly true in the financial sector, where we are seeing an increasing demand for mathematicians and actuaries to manage hedge funds and private equities,† said Honick. For big and small Surveys of European executives indicate that three factors are hampering corporate expansion: increasing bureaucratic and administrative complexity (regulation, compliance issues); uncertainty, as it relates to top line growth; and the difficulty of finding the best people to grow the company. These issues hold true for small, mid-size and large organisations. Executive recruiters specialise in filling senior leadership positions, no matter what the size of the organisation. Perhaps for SME’s, it is even more critical to find not just â€Å"the right person† but â€Å"the best person†, since each new recruit will have a proportionally greater impact on the existing team as a whole. â€Å"In smaller companies, the quality of internal human interaction tends to have a more immediate effect on overall results,† said Honick, â€Å"Also, responsibilities in an SME can cover more than one functional area. A Finance Director will probably have admin duties, and also might oversee HR. So we would need to find a person who can positively impact all three areas. ————————————————- Recruiting ‘in-house’ is typically the first reaction of most HR directors. But for small and mid-sized companies searching to fill management positions, looking within is often not feasible. Most likely, for young and/or small businesse s the required talent does not yet exist in-house. So for middle and senior-level hires who will have a significant impact on the top and bottom line, it’s becoming more and more common for organisations of all sizes to rely on a executive search firm to find the best talent out there Overseas recruitment and challenges: The rules of engagement Overseas recruitment has gone mainstream. Once viewed as the last resort of vaguely treacherous corporate wage cutters, hiring foreign workers is the newest trend for small and medium businesses struggling to deal with an unprecedented skills shortage. But the popularity of overseas recruiting – and a few well publicized instances of abuse by rogue employers – has caught the Government’s attention. In April 2007 federal Immigration Minister Kevin Andrews declared his intention to â€Å"clean up the system† by introducing tighter policing and hefty new financial penalties for employers who breach migration laws. All this means that overseas recruitment now presents greater risks and rewards for Australian businesses than ever before. For an increasing number of SME owners, coping with the skills shortage means this is a gamble they must take if they are to find the staff their businesses need to survive. So much work, so few workers Each month, economic data confirms what SMEs are experiencing on the ground: the skills shortage is getting worse. With unemployment already at a 32-year low of 4. 4%, in May 2007 the number of new jobs ads surged 10. 3% to 251,996, a massive 40. 8% rise on a year earlier. While shortages are being felt across the board, the cupboard is particularly bare for employers in the resources, information technology, professional services and hospitality sectors. Andrew Stormon, the manager of Queensland SME Mt Isa Fleet Maintenance Services, tells a common story. We advertised for 18 months trying to find people for mechanic positions; we just found we got very few responses, and those we did get didn’t have the right skills and weren’t suitable for the job. † In a booming economy, not enough staff means lost work and lost profits. â€Å"We lost in the vicinity of $500,000 because we continually had to knock back work. We lost one of our clients worth $250,000 because w e just didn’t have the people we needed to service their fleet for them,† Stormon says. It is this combination of commercial opportunity and labour shortage that is driving business to recruit from overseas in increasing numbers. Immigration Department figures show 97,430 skilled migrants came to Australia in 2005-06, up from 77,880 in 2004-05. This number is set to increase to 102,500 in 2007-08. By far the biggest increase in numbers has been in the s457 temporary skilled migration category, under which employers sponsor foreign workers with in-demand skills to work in Australia for between three months and four years. There are reported to be 105,000 foreign workers currently in Australia on s457 visas, a number that could increase significantly next year. Navigate the migration minefield Bringing a worker into Australia is not just a matter of filling out a few forms and sending a cheque for the processing fee. Although there is a lot of information available – the Federal Government and industry associations are good sources – the migration process is complex and requires knowledge of both Australian immigration rules and those of the country from which a worker is migrating. Added to that is the difficulty of finding eligible candidates for the position in the country of origin, an especially difficult and time-consuming task in countries where English is not the first language. Given the complications involved, it is no surprise recruitment and migration service providers have proliferated in recent years, encouraged by low barriers to entry and the big dollars desperate employers are prepared to pay for good staff. It generally costs about $4000 to $6000 to have an agency find an employee and bring them into Australia, although prices vary depending on where an employee comes from and how they are employed in Australia. Jo Burston, the managing director of migration services firm Job Capital, says the time-consuming nature of the process and the heavy penalties associated with breaches of migration legislation means agencies offer good value for money for many businesses. â€Å"The Department of Immigration has very strict guidelines and the penalties can be substantial, so it’s a process that allows very little room for error. Since most SMEs don’t have specialised immigration staff, hiring an agency allows them to get on with their core business,† Burston says. â€Å"Most SMEs would hire an accountant to give them tax advice, they wouldn’t just have their admin person do it, and this is really no different. † Even businesses that can afford to devote staff to recruitment tend hire professionals to help them navigate the process. Mike Smith, operations manager at IT services and integration firm Anatas, says he supplements his in-house resources by outsourcing difficult aspects of offshore recruiting process. We would just burn weeks and weeks of staff time doing it all ourselves. Even with staff working on the process it can be time-consuming just providing the information and vetting candidates. There is no way to short-cut the process, you just end up causing problems for yourself if you do,† Smith says. Traps for young players and what to do about them Contrary to popul ar belief, the vast majority of businesses who hire foreign workers are not motivated by the prospect of lower wages. Imported workers cannot be employed to perform cheap unskilled labour and must be paid above a legislated minimum standard annual salary of $41,850 ($57,300 for IT staff). These rules are not flexible. The desire to avoid any further horror stories of foreign workers being paid a pittance or charged outrageous migration fees has caused the Government to allocate more than $80 million in this year’s budget to increasing the monitoring and investigation capacity of the Department of Immigration and Citizenship and to increase penalties for breaching migration laws. From August 17, employers can be personally fined up $13,200 or, in extreme cases, jailed for up to two years for employing a worker without the appropriate visa or referring a worker without an appropriate visa to another employer; while businesses can be fined up to $66,000 for each offending worker they employee. More severe penalties are applicable if workers are being exploited through slavery, forced labour or sexual servitude. The complexity and bureaucracy that governs the skilled migration process means planning ahead is also important. Finding an employee and bringing them to Australia generally takes three to six months, migration service providers say, with even longer lead times workers with very specialised skills are sought. A more obvious problem employers of foreign staff have to deal with is culture shock. Even for people who come with all the good will in the world, the shock of finding yourself in unfamiliar territory far away from family and friends can be too much to handle. Australian Recruiting director David Young, who recruits Asian and UK workers for Australia’s mining and healthcare industries, says it is rare for foreign workers to cut short their time in Australia because of culture shock, but it does happen from time to time. â€Å"It can be for all kinds of reasons: sometimes it’s the climate, the food, often people who come here don’t realise quite how big Australia is and get a bit of a shock if they find themselves in a remote location. On the other hand, I was talking to a company the other day who brought in workers from Sweden: they were very skilled but it didn’t work out because there was a big difference between the sense of humour of Swedes and Australians,† Young says. Small things like meeting new arrivals at the airport, help with accommodation and transport, opening a bank account and taking out medical insurance can help minimise homesickness. â€Å"We brought someone in the other day who was a great musician and we connected him up with a local band; things like that can make a huge difference,† Young says. Once these hurdles are overcome, it seems there can be real upside to taking staff from other countries into your workforce. Mt Isa Fleet Maintenance manager Andrew Stormon says after dealing with some â€Å"out-of-date† attitudes on the workshop floor towards the four skilled tradesmen he brought in from the Philippines, the new arrivals have now become an important part of the business. â€Å"These blokes have turned up and keen as hell, punctual, their English is excellent and they really get in and work. And their skills are fantastic: I haven’t come across tradesmen as good as some of these blokes for many years,† Stormon says. Another advantage of bringing in workers from overseas can be loyalty. Anatas’s Mike Smith says in sectors such as IT, where highly skilled employees tend to be highly mobile, this is be a big plus. â€Å"We have found workers we bring tend to stick with us. Often they will be looking to become permanent residents in a couple of year or perhaps it’s just because we have developed with them, but we’ve found they stick with us for a bit longer than Australian staff,† Smith says. As long as Australia continues to enjoy the fruits of the China-led resources boom, economic necessity will continue to drive Australian businesses to hire skilled staff from overseas. ————————————————- The key to making overseas recruitment a good experience is to take advantage of the information available and obtain professional advice and assistance where necessary. By going into the process with eyes open, a business of any size can successfully navigate the migration minefield. ————————————————- ———————————————— ————————————————- SUGGESTI ONS THAT CAN BE IMPLIMENTED____________________ Outsource Outsourcing non-core activities is increasingly becoming popular even for SMEs. Instead of incurring huge fixed costs in manpower to manage recruitment/ retention issues with sophisticated IT software, SMEs can reap the following benefits by outsourcing such functions to the experts in the field: Cost savings Technology (a simple HR IT software can cost from to $50,000 to $300,000) Experienced HR staff to manage recruitment/retention issues Administrative time (even with the HR software, lots of time goes in updating, maintaining a database etc) Focus on strategic functions By outsourcing these functions, the HR can focus on vendor management and on making sure that results are achieved. Access to world-class recruitment/retention strategies Service providers typically invest millions in the most updated systems and technology as this is their core business. Hence by outsourcing such functions, SMEs can leverage on the service providers’ world-class technology. Create employer branding The service providers function as an extended arm of the SME. Hence by running the entire hiring process (right up to orientation) effectively, a positive brand image is created for the SME. Measurement of hiring effectiveness The HR can extract useful indices such as ‘quality of hire’, ‘cost per hire’, ‘days to fill job’, ‘candidate experience’ etc. from the service providers. This will enable the HR to focus more on strategic issues rather than administrative tasks of the hiring process. Quality of Hire This is of critical importance to any organization – whether is there a good fit between the job and person. By outsourcing the hiring to experts, it has been proven that the quality of hire will improve. This means that the new hire performing better on the job and eventually affecting the organisation’s overall operational effectiveness and profitability in a positive way. Employer branding Having mentioned outsourcing as one of the strategies in managing talents, the responsibility on employer branding still remains with the organization. Companies need to brand themselves as choiced employers just like how they brand their products and services. There are some distinct advantages of being an SME which need to be communicated to job seekers and existing staff. Being small can be an asset in many instances. Having a staff strength of less than 300 makes an organization a lot more nimble, fast and flexible compared to larger MNCs which often wait for global initiatives before implementing changes in their HR policies and practices. THE FOLLOWING ARE SOME TIPS FOR SMES: Talent Attraction Employer branding – focus on key strengths such as â€Å"innovative†, â€Å"fast-growing† â€Å"regional exposure† Provide flexible and innovative benefits/rewards that cater to individual needs Measure the current hiring effectiveness – indices such as ‘cost per hire’, ‘days to fill a job’, ‘effectiveness of hiring channels’, ‘candidate experience’ are critical so that SMEs can track where there are bottlenecks and where the hiring process can be improved. Plan career path for individuals More growth opportunities, regionalization – which is attractive to the younger workforce. Talent Retention Shift from being family-oriented to more performance-based Communicating the corporate goals, vision, direction (for a more engaged workforce) HR can afford to give personalized attention to individual’s needs in terms of benefits, rewards, career goals, training ; development needs Invest in meaningful training ; development that leads to job expansion for staff Once the SME has established themselves as a hoice employer with attractive and innovative HR policies, retention strategies and career advancement opportunities, it is only a matter of time that happy employees spread the word. There is nothing more powerful for an organization than happy staff who become their ‘ambassadors’ wherever they go! This inevitably does wonders for enhanced employer branding and attracting better talents over the years. ********************************************* ******************************** BIBLIOGRAPHY http://www. eurofound. europa. eu/emcc/content/source/eu06025a. htm http://en. allexperts. com/q/Human-Resources-2866/Challenges-faced-HR-Manager-1. htm http://72. 14. 235. 132/search? q=cache:yyt4gJDUXlMJ:www. gmprecruit. com/pdf/KC/SMEchallenge. pdf+recruitment+challenges+faced+by+SMEs;hl=en;ct=clnk;cd=1;gl=in http://www. hrmguide. com/recruitmentsmanagers/+tasksfaced+SME. How to cite Hr Term Paper, Essays

Monday, May 4, 2020

Negotiation and Conflict Management Impact on Project Measures

Question: Discuss about the Negotiation and Conflict Management for the Impact on Project Measures. Answer: Introduction In this paper the objective is for offering the review that is inclusive on the conflict management that is literature based. Here as per subsequent discussion, we will describe first the conflict concept; the evaluation will get trailed to the conflict of team for moments. It also experiences the conflicts for the team, and also fairness the CEO technical, the relationship among conflict both affective and conflict, sequentially. As per the conclusion for review of the conflict literature, in the end of this report, we will recommend the model of study so that it get inspired empirically in the whole report. The topic which was chosen is very vast in nature and the topic is conflicts management and we tried best for concluding deeply by just giving the review of literature and the model that are used for conflict managing. Literature Review The purpose of Hocker Wilmot was that they want to carry out the relationships that were complicated into their workplace and thus effectively learn and managed the conflict in the personal life. Thus the stress for studying the significance the conflict for reducing the conflict cycles that is negative and would cause damage that is irreparable in both of the professional and personal lives. Most of the conducted would determine the effect for emotions, expectations, culture and perception that have the management of conflict. Here, we would examine especially the articles under eight scholarly that were related in assessing number of topics that would contribute the design for conflict policy with resolution/management. We will review primary the article that was created by Carver, Laurenceau and Avivi (2009) based on the relationship among progress and perceived sharing of the goal towards the objective and perceived quality of relationship in the romantic couples that were committed. Thus, the studies were conducted with 245 students who are an undergraduate who completed all the questions by addressing the goals that were undesired or desired and rate the goal maturity with their partners. This study would examine connection among overall relationship quality and share the perceived goal. The study would reveal that the conflicts in marital status were based on goals from defensive individuals and it also states that the couples are much more productive when the pursued goals are pursued as they both are together working. This study will focus mainly on mutual goals perception and towards objectives the progress perception. When the individual states that their partner will share general objectives and then they are making progress to the goals which are shared, the overall relationship is very strong and couples are much satisfied and happier. This study mainly focused on the couples who got involved romantically. It states that above assumptions will help the relationship to get happy. Thus we can conclude that team will work better in the environment when they shared the goals together. Now, another article which we are dealing now belongs to conflict and perception management. These articles were developed by Wilson Longaretti in the year 2006. This article, which is based on the conflict and perceptions management for setting of the primary school among teacher and students. The major disadvantages of the above study are that it consists of the samples that are small thus the findings are not able to get generalized. Total incidents that were covered in this study are 40 which splits as 10 teacher yelling cases, 14 cases were based on decisions imposed, 2 cases were based on actions taken physically and 4 cases are based on punishment and blaming. It was clear from the study that negative opinion from the teachers about the student will create conflict and thus they assume for an authoritative stance for these conflict dealing. It was the view from the study that negative view will create conflict among both student and teachers and thus for resolving the conflict very few strategies range were used. When conflict is very constructive, then focuses of the parties are on problem-solving and this will play a significant role in the social development of the child. Thus studies state that values were taught to the children that are non-aggressive and cooperative they will build better skills of communication and higher esteem. Thus it was clear that childrens should teach by teachers on how to manage more productively the disputes and while doing such activity environment of the classroom becomes conductive to development and learning. This whole study will translate the environment of work because the relationship among teacher-student will reflect the relationship of employer-employee where there is a relationship of superior and subordinate. There is an idea which the above study supports is that employees should get permission from an employer for managing their disputes very constructively and provide solution works jointly. Thus it will build environment of work that is very conducive to innovation and growth. The next two articles which were examined here were based on the role of the emotions in the process of conflict. The two articles were created by Caldwell and Bain-Chekal, Schroth in the year 2005 and the names are Words and phrases that trigger emotions in negotiations and their effect: Sticks and stones may break bones and words can hurt me. These articles will analyze how words of emotion will trigger and impact the process negotiation. Schroth conducted the study that expands on the research that show that emotional state of the party would influence the behavior of other parties in any dispute, especially when the state of emotional is very negative. The first of the study were conducted by 308 students who are under-graduate from the two universities of west-coast. Then from the survey, it was concluded that what is the reason which led to an emotional response. Thus in this study, researchers recognized some of the specific words which were used for evoking the emotional resp onse negotiation. In the other study which we have mentioned above, in that researchers gained the information from 221 students who are undergraduate again from same universities. In this case, participants are reviewing situation of conflict among two of the financial people. Participants were split in 2 parts; one part will review the deal of dispute that as based on agreement of rent-sharing and other parts will review the case where Chris and Pat are business partners. The outcome of the research proves that two things are caused by trigger words: More likely the observers for believing that doing negotiation will become the success. Observers found that party perceives those are using trigger words are very unfair. This was concluded that its very important to understand what are trigger for words to use which show emotions and thus help in regulating any of the conflict the process. Conclusion Not all the above articles which were reviewed here will give information that will get translated directly into the effective policy of the conflict management. But every article that were used will give insight to the effective ways in which conflict management got handled; it also has the emotions that were included and the words of the trigger that will set the emotions off. The above articles also provide insight into the impact of perception and sharing of goal in any relationship, also any impact on the conflict styles and silent conflict differences across various cultures. All the above information that is provided is important in some of the ways towards development through the plan of the conflict management. Conflict management played a key role to define a team success or failure. A project Manager needs to know what to do and how to do to resolve the conflict and this should not impact project health or impact should be on the positive side. Part2 Introduction The team of the project is generally defined as 2 for more than people with few common purposes who undertake various tasks, contingent on each other, synchronize the activities, and understand themselves as the portion of the group. Project groups incline to contain the individuals with the dissimilar background that means; more awareness from various objects can get additional to the task. Additionally, this unavoidably originates with the project members having dissimilar viewpoints on tasks prominent to likely conflicts. Conflict management is a taught job that should get done by every individual while working on any project. There are various case studies available in the market that supports the methods to handle conflicts. Here we will try to create a model that can helpful in future to conflict management by using certain tools and techniques. The purpose of this section is to link theoretical models and research to product an effective model to manage conflicts. Approach Conflict Management a resolution technique is related to the dual disquiet model distributed into concern the concern and self for others. From these reasons Desivilya et al. (2005) explains following five main of the conflict management techniques: Dominating In this type a person is high concerns about himself rather than others Obliging This is the opposite of dominating where person concerns high about others and less for himself. Avoiding In This person dont care concerns about himself or about others. Integrating In these person concerns high about himself and about others as well. Compromising - This technique person has a reasonable concern for himself and for other. We too often follow passive technique to resolve conflicts. This is the best method to resolve any conflict and best way for conflict management. In this newly identified technique, we need to obligate and avoid based on the situation of conflict. Before making a choice between obligate and avoid we should understand deeply when to use what. Sometimes we may not understand when to avoid and when to oblige due to emotions. Emotions are major factor when it originates to conflicts management. Any conflicts consist of 3 key things such as attitude, behavior and contradictions. For a successful conflict management we should follow the below steps: First, we should classify the conflict foundations, feelings, behaviors contradictions. After getting gall the required information we should transform by changing the alignment of the conflict and provide correct information or explain the elements to the different parties involved in conflicts. At last providing or implementing a solution which is the result of changing the elements permits transformation of the conflict way. We called this new technique as dynamic conflicts management in which we first remove any kind of emotions associated with this and then we need to choose obligate or avoid as a solution. To overcome the emotions from the situation we need to follow the method of perspective talking. By perspective talking sometimes both the parties come to an accepted point to resolve the conflict and emotions will less involve. If the conflicts are adapted to emotions, viewpoint taking supports that one attempts to realize the feeling of the other individual about their lookout and conflict. Perspective communication strains that one creates exertion of tapping himself in others place and to observe on conflicts from changed lookout than just his own. In conclusion, the major problem is to deal with this when it arises with perspective taking that this is only differing party to the clash that will get express if perspective communication that is doing really works. Similar to this conflict management we can also use negations as a part of conflict management. During this, negotiator has to view the connection among the outcome and the situation. During this we should link different level of interactions with motivational source and intensity. Communication is another play a key role at the time of negotiation. Active communication is conferring to Donohue (2003, p.173) grounded on quantity, quality, relevancy and the behavior. When negotiations become complex or result is uncertain then cognitive capability is more vital to follow. Tools: Logical argument mapping and feedback are the 2 major tools that can used to understand and resolve the conflicts for both situations either obliged or avoid. In logical argument mapping, we encourage reflection and develop communication to share standpoints. By using logical argument mapping tool we should get capable for generating the map where weaknesses of an argument can get visible and discovered. Hoffmann (2005, p.318) explains ,there are 2 key uses of Logical argument mapping, to win disagreement by founding an argumentation or over collaboration originate to the shared thoughts and the settlement. Logical argument mapping is on the grounded for essential knowledge that anyone would require something would get prepared to offer a cause for it which is, they should capable and prepared to express a disagreement. The main aims with Logical argument mapping are to create argumentation that is well-organized by Inspiring self-reflexivity. Feedback is also a tool that is encountered positively in the discussions. One should however, contend that response is imperfect at the level that this can only be used as a protective measure. Feedback is a tool that can used for individual growth likelihood to alter behavior that has an adverse influence on the group of the project. Feedback may get linked in most of the dissimilar forms such as meetings, questionnaires. The Project manager can decide which tool to get used, the imperative portion is the consequence and how this was utilized for development that eventually are founded on every person's wish for development. Logical argument mapping is not comprised on daily activities of a company or project. Logical argument mapping can debatably be utilized when the conflict includes the larger quantity of people, groups and possibly primarily project teams within the firms. Therefore Logical argument mapping is a tool that in the direct is suitable for greater conflicts within the project teams. Similarly, for the small size of teams feedback plays a key role while managing the conflicts. The Project manager should get neutral while providing or taking the feedback and then resolve the conflict situation. Conclusion: The paper has revealed that conflicts are very different as per individual. As per this study conflicts escalation foundation is in its expressive involvement. If the conflicts focused on the person it has a greater risk of intensification and to change to becoming dysfunctional. Whereas if conflicts are related to the task then this will lead to an enhanced group working and reduced tension among people in the group of the project. Hence the manager of the project should get tangled in the task-focused clashes to the level that it paybacks to project. With this paper, this has exposed that management of conflict can get separated into 2 areas, management of conflicts and anticipation of conflicts. The feedback may be tallied as a precautionary tool to help progress project person behavior and to make sure that the thoughts and state of mind is conceded on over precise communication. The role of project manager comprises working with defensive tools like feedback. Addition to this, the project manager should observe the work assigned and done by project group and make sure that sensitive accused matters dont go forward to the conflict that could mature and become dysfunctional. A project manager that are competent should get capable for understand the conflict from a self-determining perspective that was carried forward with the help of the interviews or perspective talks and underlined in the hypothetical background to solve a conflict. Apart from this, the leader of project or team leader has to get capable deciding the design of resolution for making processes, so that it can govern if the fast time-saving choice should get occupied or whether to include the individual group and inspire fairness. At last, manager of the project would vigorously work with emerging the project group over tools such as feedback and thus for accomplishing the conflicts with involvement that are emotional. The 1st step for becoming the conflict manager that is competent is to get responsive ones weaknesses, conduct and conflict causes. The 2nd step is to get capable to set oneself in the others place and to realize the conflicts from a self-governing perspective.. Further research As per the future research, this would get considered as very interesting for applying the suggested techniques in the above thesis through the workshops or when the conflict would arise in the team of the project. Through the workshop with the two of the parties that are opposing, they will effects whether it is positive and negative could get revealed but that is most of the beneficial would get applied for the methods in the conflict that are real. Moreover, various cultures of the company based on the organizational structures would appropriate more for the specific technique over other, in this report, it was difficult and diffuses for executing but it will support the further conflict management development. Finally, the standardized for developing the process of feedback that was based on the meetings and questionnaires and perhaps straight for discussion with open with other areas that would get highlighted for the future in the research. References Schroth, H., Bain-Chekal, J., Caldwell, D. (2005). Sticks and stones may break bones and words can hurt me: Words and phrases that trigger emotions in negotiations and their effects. International Journal of Conflict Management, 16(2), 102-127 Avivi, Y., Laurenceau, J., Carver, C. (2009). Linking relationship quality to perceived mutuality of relationship goals and perceived goal progress. Journal of Social Clinical Psychology, 28(2), 137-164 Wilmot, W. Hocker, J. (2011) Interpersonal Conflict, 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Longaretti, L. Wilson, J. (2006). The impact of perceptions on conflict management. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(4), 3-15. Hoffmann, M.H.G. (2005) Logical argument mapping: a method for overcoming cognitive problems of conflict management?, The International Journal of Conflict Management, 16 (4), pp. 304-334 [Online] Available at: https://nuweb.northumbria.ac.uk/library/norapowersearch/index.html (Accessed: 1 of February 2011). Donohue, W.A. (2003) The promise of an interaction-based approach to negotiation?, The International Journal of Conflict Management, 14 (3), pp. 167-176 [Online] Available at: https://nuweb.northumbria.ac.uk/library/norapowersearch/index.html (Accessed: 7 of February 2011).

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Marriage A Legal Form Of Slavery Essays - , Term Papers

Marriage: A Legal Form of Slavery In the society of Mill's time period a woman's destiny was to be dainty, delicate, patient and graceful. She grew up without education, without having a career and without having the right to vote on laws and issues that pertained to her. The only choice that these women had was to get married and with this marriage she gave away every right that she had. In other words she is now worse off that a slave that actually had more rights and privileges than she. After marriage she has nothing of her own to claim not even her children. Men did not care about her rights, they grew up with a mind set that they controlled everything, that their wives were to be obedient and that their offspring were his and he claimed them as his and only his if the woman were to leave. Every little boy was raised with this sense of superiority. A woman could not do what a man could; she could not be educated because her role was to be a mother and nothing else. With a woman decided to marry it wasn't always of her choice, it was more of that there was no other opportunity for her. When married everything that she owned was now her husbands, including anything valuable that was hers. She could not even claim her children as her own even if her husband were dead. If he left his children to someone other than his wife she may have not even been able to see them. Anything that the wife did her husband was responsible for. She was more or less treated as if she were a child herself. A husband could also beat his wife or commit spousal rape without any punishment. As Mill says that, "Men are not required, as a preliminary to the marriage ceremony, to prove by testimonials that they are fit to be trusted with the exercise of absolute power," he means that what they may say does not mean that is what they are held to and do in their marriage (Mill 35). Even though in most marriages the husbands are not power hungry against their own wives, a married woman is worse off than a slave in that day of age. A slave compared to a married woman has more rights than she does. A slave can claim their own valuable properties and does not have to hand anything of theirs over to their slaveholder. Unlike a married woman a slave is not a slave all hours of the day. He has a fixed schedule of chores that he does in a day and once they are completed he is son. A slave does have a life of his own when he is off duty. A slave also has time for his own family when he is not working. A married woman is always on duty; she has no time for herself to make a life of her own. She is totally committed to her husband and all of his needs without time for herself. Slaves can actually have time for themselves and do what they please in their own interests. What Mill is trying to say is that as a married woman she has lesser rights than that of a slave. Mill shows a good parallel comparing a woman to a slave, which makes an impact on male readers that did not think very highly of black slaves. That is why thi s analogy is very good. Saying that slaves have more rights than their women might make men think of why it is that slaves have these rights and women do not. In conclusion Mill did a good job of getting his point across and in an interesting way. Saying that since marriage is legal and women are treated worse than slaves it is a legal form of slavery. This is true in many situations of this time. The best point that is made is that a slave is not a slave all hours of the day and does have a life of his own. Many women did not have this luxury unless they were of an upper class, which made all

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Crystallization Definition

Crystallization Definition Crystallization is the solidification of atoms or molecules into a highly structured form called a crystal. Usually, this refers to the slow precipitation of crystals from a solution of a substance. However, crystals can form from a pure melt or directly from deposition from the gas phase. Crystallization can also refer to the solid-liquid separation and purification technique in which mass transfer occurs from the liquid solution to a pure solid crystalline phase. Although crystallization may occur during precipitation, the two terms are not interchangeable. Precipitation simply refers to the formation of an insoluble (solid) from a chemical reaction. A precipitate may be amorphous or crystalline. The Process of Crystallization Two events must occur for crystallization to occur. First, atoms or molecules cluster together on the microscopic scale in a process called nucleation. If the clusters become stable and sufficiently large, crystal growth may occur. Atoms and compounds can generally form more than one crystal structure (polymorphism). The arrangement of particles is determined during the nucleation stage of crystallization. This may be influenced by multiple factors, including temperature, the concentration of the particles, pressure, and the purity of the material. In a solution in the crystal growth phase, an equilibrium is established in which solute particles dissolve back into the solution and precipitate as a solid. If the solution is supersaturated, this drives crystallization because the solvent cannot support continued dissolving. Sometimes having a supersaturated solution is insufficient to induce crystallization. It may be necessary to provide a seed crystal or a rough surface to start nucleation and growth. Examples of Crystallization A material may crystallize either naturally or artificially and either quickly or over geological timescales. Examples of natural crystallization include: Snowflake formationCrystallization of honey in a jarStalactite and stalagmite formationGemstone crystal deposition Examples of artificial crystallization include: Growing sugar crystals in a jarProduction of synthetic gemstones Crystallization Methods There are many methods used to crystallize a substance. To a large degree, these depend on whether the starting material is an ionic compound (e.g., salt), covalent compound (e.g., sugar or menthol), or a metal (e.g., silver or steel). Ways of growing crystals include: Cooling a solution or meltEvaporating solventAdding a second solvent to reduce the solubility of the soluteSublimationSolvent layeringAdding another cation or anion The most common process is to dissolve the solute in a solvent in which it is at least partially soluble. Often the temperature of the solution is increased to increase solubility so the maximum amount of solute goes into solution. Next, the warm or hot mixture is filtered to remove undissolved material or impurities. The remaining solution (the filtrate) is allowed to slowly cool to induce crystallization. The crystals may be removed from the solution and allowed to dry or else washed using a solvent in which they are insoluble. If the process is repeated to increase the purity of the sample, it is called recrystallization. The rate of cooling of the solution and the amount of evaporation of the solvent can greatly impact the size and shape of the resulting crystals. Generally, slower is better: slowly cool the solution and minimize evaporation.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

History of Christianity to the Reformation Research Paper

History of Christianity to the Reformation - Research Paper Example Not until in the year 312 A.D when the emperor and his soldiers were in the quest to overthrow Maxentius, a man who was allegedly believed to want to take over the Roman Empire. According to Anonymous (45- 46), the soldiers of Maxentius were thrice more than those of Constantine. David (1-2) adds that Emperor Constantine was born in a place called Naissus, in recent times renamed Nish. He was the eldest son of Constantius Chlorus and Helena. Emperor Constantine’s father was promoted to serve as the Augustus after he married a Caesar’s daughter and when he died Constantine took over the Augustus. This led to his fame and popularity among the Roman people. This gave him more power and probability to get the chair of Roman Emperor. The sudden change came when Emperor Constantine said a small prayer shortly before the battle was underway. Even though he was not sure of what was going on, it is legendary that after saying the prayer he looked up above and saw a cross that sh one greatly and was located higher than the sun. He thought that his gods were not as powerful as the Christian God otherwise the cross should have been located at the same level to the sun. If the sun that he served had appeared higher than the shinning cross, maybe he would not get that conviction. Since the sun was going to set, the shinning cross was vividly seen and had the words â€Å"by this sign conquer†. Therefore, he believed that it was the God of Christians who caused this sign to appear at such a moment after prayer. The sign he saw was proceeded by a dream in which Anonymous (45- 46) notes he still saw more of these signs. Then came the day when the battle was set. Maxentius troupe, the army that looked so big, was defeated surprisingly. Maxentius in pursuit to escape and save his life died after drowning in a river called Tiber. Emperor Constantine at this juncture was fully convinced that the help came from the God of Christians. Ever since he honoured Christi anity and worked to the best of his abilities to honour the God of Christians and became the first Christian emperor. He is the reason for the Christian faith and history to date (Anonymous 45- 46). According to David (1-2), Constantine became the undisputed emperor after his soldiers defeated the soldiers of Maxentius. This led to the rise of Christians who were at first despised, persecuted and deemed superstitious. Christianity hence forth prevailed in Rome and affected not only the Roman Empire but also the Christian church. Historians have not disputed the reason as to why Constantine transformed to Christianity. He adds that the God that Constantine honoured so much helped him in the beginning till the end of his reign. Again, this writer likens Constantine to Moses because the two were brought up in hostile homes and the religions that they held at this time are those that had overthrown their enemies; Christianity. Moses fought for Christianity when he was sent to release th e Israelites. The leaders of the enemies of these two men died by drowning in water and this mark another similarity between Moses and Constantine. David (1-2) describes Emperor Constantine as a one great and eminent person. Attributing these characters to the fact that he was brave hence the name Great. Before his reign, Christianity’s doctrines and teachings in Rome had lost value and integrity. After he sat on the great seat, Emperor Constanti